7. UK Concept plans
A concept plan consists of a set of topics that lead the viewer through the logic of a management plan.  The topics may be viewed either as a set of nested headings taken from the plan or from the overview map of the headings that may be opened from 'Overview Plan' on the menubar at the top of this web site.  
The plans have been chosen to provide examples of a range of habitats and formats. This section of the web site is under development and at the moment.  The habitats or species with a concept management plan are listed in a red font below.
Coastal sand dunes and marsh
Habitat is being lost through planting of forests with non-native trees, agricultural intensification, including reseeding and conversion to arable land, housing and other infrastructure development, building of airfields and use as defence lands. Other factors are engineering activities including coastal defence structures; sand extraction and changes to sediment supply including effects caused by offshore extraction;  grazing management including the role of the rabbit; tourism and recreation activities including their use as golf courses; Other issues are, invasive/alien species, effects of increased nitrogen levels, pipe laying, including gas and oil, water tables and water abstraction, acid rain deposition.
Native woodlands
As traditional uses and markets for wood began to decline so the woodland cover declined also. Of the remaining ancient woodland a further 45% has been destroyed since the second world war. This loss was mostly as a result of planting ancient woodlands with commercial conifers, the mechanisation and intensification of agriculture.
Wet grasslands
Important wetland habitats continue to be lost or damaged at an alarming rate. In the UK, over 45% of wet grasslands have been lost since the 1930s. With more than 40 threatened bird species dependent on the UK’s wet grasslands, conservation is critical.
White headed duck
The White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala is a globally endangered species with an estimated world population of less than 15,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2000). The Council of Europe White-headed Duck Action Plan (Green & Hughes 1996) identified hybridisation with the introduced North American Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis as the most serious threat to the White- headed Duck.
Common Scoter
In the UK, the Common Scoter is recognised as a nationally threatened duck (the only species of waterfowl to be red-listed) because of its small and declining breeding population. There are only 200 pairs in Great Britain and Ireland (90 in Scotland, 110 in Ireland) and the species is now extinct as a breeding species in Northern Ireland (there were 150 pairs in 1967). Numbers in the Flow country of northeast Scotland have declined from 55 pairs in 1988 to only 28 in 1996.
European large carnivores
While the perilous plight of Asia's tigers is widely known, the threats facing Europe's own top predators has received much less publicity. The Iberian lynx of Spain and Portugal, the world's most endangered cat species, faces imminent extinction, while wolves face a hostile reception where they return to parts of western Europe that eradicated them a century ago.
Lady's Slipper Orchid
A large, attractive orchid growing on moderately grazed species-   rich limestone grassland. The distribution was formerly widespread, though local, in parts of the North Pennines in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Durham and Cumbria. It has suffered a severe decline and has survived naturally at only one location,
Marsh Fritillary butterfly
The marsh fritillary butterfly is declining in almost every European country. The UK is now believed to be one of the major European stronghold for the species, but even here it has declined substantially over the last 150 years. In Britain, its range has reduced by over 62%, and it has recently disappeared from most of eastern England and eastern Scotland.
Japanese Knotweed
Japanese knotweed was introduced from Asia to Europe in the mid-   nineteenth century as an ornamental and fodder plant. The dead stems and leaf litter decompose very slowly and form a deep organic layer, which prevents native seeds from germinating. Once present at a site, Japanese knotweed increases in area very rapidly and soon forms monoculture stands.